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Handwritten, holographic wills are convenient but risky and may not be valid

by Legacy Plan
January 22, 2024

Holographic wills, which are handwritten wills without formal witnesses, have a long history intertwined with the progression of estate planning and legislation surrounding last wills and testaments.

The concept of holographic wills dates back hundreds of years to when written wills first emerged as a way to direct asset distribution upon one's death. In earlier eras, access to legal help was far more limited, especially for less affluent social classes. With low literacy rates, requiring flawless drafting or legally attested witnesses for wills would have severely restricted their use. Thus, basic handwritten wills became an accepted norm.

In past centuries up through the 20th century, holographic wills were considered legally sound and a socially normalized practice across many regions. They allowed everyday individuals and property owners to spell out final wishes without dependence on lawyers. For those living in rural areas or with modest means, crafting homemade wills felt more convenient, affordable and personalized. As literacy rates rose over time, the use of handwritten wills grew more widespread.

Early on, probate courts recognized holographic wills as reflecting the testator’s true intentions and wishes when evidence showed the documents’ legitimacy. Courts upheld idiosyncrasies in language, grammar or writing style in favor of honoring a person's last testimony. The prevalence of holographic wills through the 1800s and early 1900s led legislators in many states to establish laws supporting their validity with certain verification standards and protections against forgeries.

Modern shift away from holographic wills

Over the past century, however, holographic will usage has steeply declined despite technically still being legally permissible in about half of U.S. states. Societal changes drove this shift, including rising affluence, greater access to legal resources, higher educational levels and increased life expectancy. The mainstream preference veered toward professionally drafted wills created with attorney guidance and oversight. Probate courts today also tend to apply higher scrutiny to holographic wills’ eccentricities that earlier eras accepted.

While their tradition continues in a small proportion of estate planning cases, modern legislators and legal experts take a conservative stance on handwritten wills. Current best practice leans strongly toward formally executed wills given lower risks of ambiguity, family disputes or invalidity changes. For all but emergency or highly customized situations, holographic wills are now seen as an antiquated approach warranting caution.

Despite their former stronghold through history, holographic wills lost dominance as societal changes privileged access to professional legal resources. Still, their informality and simplicity attract those seeking privacy, lower costs or convenience in their estate planning. However, holographic wills carry significant downsides that make them a risky proposition for most.

Celebrity holographic wills lead to problems

Two high-profile cases – involving business mogul Howard Hughes and legendary singer Aretha Franklin – provide prime examples of the complex outcomes associated with holographic wills.

Hughes, the eccentric billionaire known for his reclusive lifestyle and trailblazing aviation and film endeavors, passed away in 1976 leaving behind a massive yet contested fortune. The lengthy legal battles that ensued highlighted the immense difficulties tied to the handwritten, unwitnessed will, or holographic will, that Hughes authored himself.

The Hughes holographic will surfaced after his death, consisting of two pages of hard-to-decipher writing scrawled onboard a flight. Written in 1968, this document gifted Hughes’ entire estate to various medical institutions to fund medical research. However, given the vast nature of Hughes’ holdings, estimated to be worth around $2.5 billion at his death, establishing the legitimacy and enforceability of this surprise document proved arduous.

Complicating matters, another will allegedly written by Hughes in later years granted a substantial portion to charity via the Mormon Church. This cast doubt on the 1968 document’s validity as his most current will. Handwriting experts, however, eventually dismissed the so-called “Mormon Will” as an outright forgery.

While the Mormon Will proved false, the holographic will still faced intense scrutiny regarding Hughes' signature. One issue was that it differed markedly from samples of signatures Hughes used on company paperwork. There was also uncertainty over whether acid Hughes accidentally spilled on the will could have distorted or degenerated the original signature. Both issues fueled intense debate.

Given Hughes’ mysterious lifestyle and reports of obsessive-compulsive behaviors, mental state objections regarding testamentary capacity also emerged. Without credible witness accounts on Hughes’ state of mind during drafting, it remained unclear whether he possessed sufficient capacity legally. Such capacity concerns often encumber holographic wills.

Ultimately, after years of analysis, expert testimony, and deliberation between various inheritors and trustees, a jury ruled favorably on the holographic will’s legitimacy in 1978. Nonetheless, battles among inheritance claimants continued for years through appeals.

Had Hughes crafted an attested will with legal counsel and formal witnessing procedures, much of this post-mortem chaos could have been mitigated or avoided. His handwritten will, while eventually validated, needlessly complicated asset transfer, damaged his legacy via bitterness and court fights, and exposed his wishes to extensive risks of total invalidation. For an estate of such mammoth value and prominence, resorting to a hastily scribed holographic will created a vastly troubling scenario.

The salacious celebrity drama around Howard Hughes’ contested fortune established a textbook case on the severe pitfalls of holographic wills for large or complex estates. Beyond the onerous signature and witness hurdles, claims around mental unsoundness plague holographic wills. Even clear distribution wishes get muddled battling claims of counterfeits. For all but the simplest estates, Howard Hughes exemplifies why the hazards of hand-written wills heavily outweigh any convenience upside.

The messy aftermath of Aretha Franklin’s handwritten willa

When Franklin passed away in 2018, she left behind not just an unmatched musical legacy but also a tangled estate plan riddled with holographic wills. Handwritten and unwitnessed, these do-it-yourself documents have spawned continuing family infighting and difficulty settling her estate years later.

Following her death, Aretha Franklin’s four sons embarked on an exhaustive hunt to piece together her makeshift wills stashed sporadically around her Detroit homes. Wills materialized stuffed in sofa cushions, hidden under piles in her office, locked in briefcases. In total, around six disjointed handwritten wills have surfaced so far written across various notebooks and loose papers spanning 2010-14.

The state of the haphazardly stored notes left executors puzzled trying to determine validity, chronology and asset intentions. Some pages were torn, words faded or scribbled out. Her distribution desires often shifted radically between versions. Such ambiguity set the blueprint for disputes among her heirs, particularly her four embattled sons entangled in tax debts tied to her assets.

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Years later, custody lawsuits and contract disagreements around her estate continued playing out in court between sons, and other parties staked claims against the estate including her ex-husband and music executives.

Aretha Franklin’s handwritten wills illuminate nearly all the hazards of unwitnessed DIY estate planning. Lack of chronological clarity, document damage, convoluted language, contradictory instructions across versions and absence of a named executor breed ripe confusion. Such inconsistency creates conflicts between hopeful heirs. Furthermore, assets like copyrights and real estate assets face complex legal and tax implications far tougher to navigate without guidance.

Had Franklin instead collaborated with estate attorneys to craft a clear, legally vetted and witnessed will with supporting documents, her legacy would be facing a far tidier road. For high-value estates especially, resorting solely to informal wills risks not just draining legal fees but bitterness and heartbreak for loved ones left behind. Franklin’s assets may finally clear probate someday, but sadly the longer family strife rages on in court, the greater taint on her memory.

The debacle around Aretha Franklin’s holographic wills provides a sobering illustration of how even with fame and fortune, attempting estate planning entirely solo can have devastating emotional and financial impacts for heirs. Beyond mere asset transfers, unwitnessed wills jeopardize cherished legacies.

Complex rules for homemade wills

When it comes to legality, about half of U.S. states permit holographic wills currently, but with varying specifications on requirements related to handwriting samples, signatures, dates and witnesses. Unlike traditional formally executed wills, holographic wills require no official witnesses or notarizations to validate in most jurisdictions. However, holographic documents must meet strict legal qualifications regarding handwriting samples and signatures to demonstrate authenticity. This differs markedly from attested wills crafted with legal oversight, which require validated witnessing during drafting and execution.

Emergency situations often limit estate planning options, so holographic wills become a fallback for those with imminent impairment or death looming. Individuals without feasible access to legal help, due to either geographical remoteness or financial constraints, may also opt to take chances crafting holographic wills on their own. Some perceive the process of formal will execution as unnecessarily complex, so they prefer attempting basic holographic wills for simplicity's sake, assuming distribution of their minimal assets will be straightforward.

Ensuring the validity of a hand-written will is tricky

When it comes to enforcing validity, holographic wills must demonstrate clarity in handwriting and asset distribution details, with unambiguous signatures, dates and specificity regarding proposed guardians, executors and inheritance allocation to withstand scrutiny. However, numerous factors invite intense contests over homemade wills. Grounds questioning validity often involve vague instructions subject to different interpretations, missing information like beneficiary contact data or asset details, along with speculation regarding the testator's mental state at drafting or undue influence from others.

Holographic wills carry peril due to common pitfalls: imprecise wording leaves asset explanation open to widely varying interpretation, without legal guidance documents risk being considered inadequate or invalid if failing to meet a particular jurisdiction's standards, and simple errors or omissions also jeopardize legal standing. Vagueness over asset distribution means increased chances of confusion and power struggles erupting between feuding relatives.

Chief drawbacks of holographic wills include increased likelihood of major oversights in estate planning since no legal vetting takes place. Errors and inconsistencies within the homemade document itself become problematic to remedy later. And attempting to handle complex asset distribution for substantial or unique holdings like real estate or business investments proves far more complicated without professional legal assistance.


While holographic wills once enjoyed favor as an informal but legally viable estate planning device, the tides have turned against them in the modern era. The cases of Hughes, Franklin and countless everyday testators showcase the gnarled legal thickets and family distress unleashed by unwitnessed homemade wills. Their promises of convenience and cost savings also often do not manifest.

As access to affordable legal guidance grows over time, most individuals no longer face barriers warranting the risks of holographic wills merely to record final wishes. And digital assets further complicate matters. For all but the simplest estates or dire emergencies, attempting to orchestrate posthumous wealth transfer solo proves not just legally hazardous but also an emotional minefield for loved ones.

Without the shielding of expert counsel, even celebrity fortunes struggle against counterfeiting claims and sharks in the waters. And families may trade short-term savings for exponentially greater court costs over years. The modern view reflects 20/20 hindsight on prior eras’ nonchalance toward “ DIY wills.” Their outcomes read less like empowering tales of self-determination than precursors to bitter legal battles and family rifts.

In special cases holographic wills retain niche utility, but never should remain a testator’s endpoint. Using them as a temporary placeholder while pursuing detailed, witnessed wills with asset-specific guidance proves far prudent. The allure of their cost and ease must be weighed fully against long-run devastation. For all but bare-minimum, uncomplicated estates, replete with backups and specific asset distribution plans, holographic wills invite danger few testators foresee. The echoes of Hughes and Franklin stand as haunting reminders for posterity on the lasting hazards of DIY estate documents lacking oversight and formal execution. Proceed at your peril without the necessary precautions and expertise in your corner.

How do I create an estate plan?

There are numerous options and scenarios to consider when developing an estate plan that protects your legacy and achieves your objectives, and important decisions should be made with the advice of qualified lawyers and financial experts. Membership with Legacy Assurance Plan provides members with valuable resources and guidance to develop comprehensive estate plans that take life's contingencies into consideration and leave a positive impact for generations to come. Legacy Assurance Plan members also receive peace of mind that a team of trusted, experienced professionals will assist them in developing legal, financial and tax strategies that will meet their needs today and for years to come through periodic reviews.

This article is published by Legacy Assurance Plan and is intended for general informational purposes only. Some information may not apply to your situation. It does not, nor is it intended, to constitute legal advice. You should consult with an attorney regarding any specific questions about probate, living probate or other estate planning matters. Legacy Assurance Plan is an estate planning services company and is not a lawyer or law firm and is not engaged in the practice of law. For more information about this and other estate planning matters visit our website at

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